The financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 is a recent enough event to weigh on people’s mind when retirement planning. Risk management is a key consideration in our portfolio construction process. We aim to reduce the impact of market downturns on a portfolio at any stage of life – but especially when the portfolio is relied on for an income. Integration is also an important concept regarding retirement income planning. We work with clients to develop a yearly income plan which coordinates government benefits, pensions, registered, and non-registered assets.